Breaking! Wildlife Demand In Asia Under Scrutiny At The (CoP18) International Wildlife Trade Conference In Geneva, Switzerland
Demand for illegal wildlife products in Asia is not only driving wildlife populations to decline in the region, but across the globe. Tigers, elephants and rhinos are some of the species to take the spotlight in relation to the illegal trade in Asia at this year’s 18th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (CoP18) to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) in Geneva.
Vietnam is now the largest destination for illegal shipments of elephant ivory and rhino horn according to independent analysis presented to the meeting by TRAFFIC, the global wildlife trade monitoring network, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA). These wildlife products are either consumed in the country or shipped to other destinations in Asia.
“Vietnam has been a country of great concern for its role in the illegal wildlife trade for many years now and although there have been significant steps forward in relation to improved policy to address the illegal trade, it’s clear that much more has to be done. World Wildlife Fund (WWF) is encouraging CITES to look closely at Vietnam’s compliance,” said Margaret Kinnaird, WWF Wildlife Practice Leader in a statement.
In addition to Vietnam, its neighbors Laos, Thailand and China are key countries of concern, particularly when it comes to tiger farms. For now, China has banned all trade in tiger parts, but the continued existence of state-run tiger farms, with thousands of captive tigers, creates political pressure and economic incentive for trade from captive tigers to be allowed in the future. WWF believes that such trade would be impossible to control and could put the world’s remaining wild tigers at risk. Meanwhile, there is already evidence of tiger parts from farms leaking into markets in the region which by escalating demand, puts the remaining 3,900 wild tigers at increased risk of poaching.
“CITES agreed in 2007 that tigers should not be bred for trade in their parts and products,” said Heather Sohl, tiger trade expert. “Yet over 12 years later, we have more tigers, in more tiger farms, in more countries, and more captive tigers and their parts and products entering the illegal trade. It’s high time the governments of the world stood by their commitments to tigers, and hold the defaulting countries accountable.”
This CITES (CoP18) will be the busiest to date with a record number of proposals to discuss the trade in other iconic species such as: saiga antelope, lions, rhino and jaguars, as well as creatures like the spider-tailed horned viper. Their fate will be greatly impacted by the outcomes of the trade discussions set to take place over the course of two weeks.
While marine turtles have survived for 120 million years, 6 of 7 species are now assessed as threatened with extinction (‘vulnerable’ to ‘critically endangered’) according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. According to the CITES Secretariat, over the last couple of years, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam have played a major role in the unsustainable trade of Hawksbill and other sea turtles. WWF is calling for stronger measures to be directed at consumer countries and for CITES to hold these countries accountable over the coming years.
Not blessed as a charismatic creature, but critical for its role in the marine ecosystem, the trade in sea cucumber, known as teatfish, will be a highly debated topic this year. WWF supports a proposal to add these species – which are prized in Asian cuisine and are extremely vulnerable to overfishing – to the list of species whose trade is regulated by CITES.
As always, elephants feature heavily on the conference agenda. WWF is calling for CITES to prioritize action with regard to countries that, either through lack of capacity or lack of political will, are implicated in the illegal ivory trade. These include: Burundi, Gabon, Togo, Nigeria, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, United Arab Emirates, Lao PDR, Malaysia, and above all – Vietnam.
Finally, underpinning many of the species being discussed, including the near-extinct vaquita porpoise, is the important role that Natural World Heritage Sites play in their conservation. These unique places host a high proportion of the remaining populations of such endangered species, and many are menaced by illegal hunting, fishing and logging. WWF is supporting measures to strengthen cooperation between CITES and the UNESCO World Heritage Convention.
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